Volume XXXV, Number 1, Spring 2010
Andrena Pierre, Pierre Minn, Carlo Sterlin, Pascale C. Annoual, Annie Jaimes, Frantz Raphaël, Eugene Raikhel, Rob Whitley, Cécile Rousseau, Laurence J. Kirmayer, Culture and Mental Health in Haiti : A Literature Review, p.13
Joannie Poirier-Bisson, Pasquale Roberge, André Marchand, Rachel Grégoire, Studies of cost/effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological treatment of anxiety disorders: a literature review, p.129
Culture and Mental Health in Haiti : A Literature Review
Andrena Pierre, Pierre Minn, Carlo Sterlin, Pascale C. Annoual, Annie Jaimes, Frantz Raphaël, Eugene Raikhel, Rob Whitley, Cécile Rousseau, Laurence J. Kirmayer
This paper reviews and summarizes the available literature on Haitian mental health and mental health services. This review was conducted in light of the Haitian earthquake in January 2010. We searched Medline, Google Scholar and other available databases to gather scholarly literature relevant to mental health in Haiti. This was supplemented by consultation of key books and grey literature relevant to Haiti. The first part of the review describes historical, economic, sociological and anthropological factors essential to a basic understand-ing of Haiti and its people. This includes discussion of demography, family structure, Haitian economics and religion. The second part of the review focuses on mental health and mental health services. This includes a review of factors such as basic epidemiology of mental illness, common beliefs about mental illness, explanatory models, idioms of distress, help-seeking behavior, configuration of mental health services and the relationship between religion and mental health.
This research aims at delimitating the realm of meditation as therapeutic care in the field of the health psychology. The authors concentrate on the most prolific current of these last years in research terms : the meditation in full consciousness. The objective is to define the concept of meditation and full consciousness, to then pay attention on the relevant psychotherapies and clinical studies in this domain. Meditation in full consciousness constitutes a very promising field of research for health psychology within the framework of care. Techniques such as MBSR, MBCT applied to the full consciousness turns out relevant and result in improvement of general health. However, studies on full consciousness are still at very early stage and more rigorous approaches on a methodological level and refined conceptual developments are necessary.
In this article, the authors present qualitative results, derived from questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, to describe past and present experiences of the Duplessis children. Examples representative of their experience and a detailed description of two cases are provided. Results indicate that childhood abuse and negligence are related to poorer long-term psychological adjustment. The findings also demonstrate that reporting at least four strengths in childhood can have long-term protective effects.
On a phenomenological level, there’s an important overlap between dissociative and psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, traumatic etiology, recognized in dissociative disorders, is also increasingly considered in psychosis. These similarities create confusion in clinical settings with important repercussions for individuals suffering from these disorders. Indeed, difficulties encountered in differential diagnoses could result in an erroneous diagnosis or in an undetected comorbidity. Some authors are going further in suggesting that there is a sub-type of schizophrenia having dissociation behind the expression of psychotic symptoms.
This article reviews the literature on economic studies of evidencebased cognitive-behavioral treatment and pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders. Articles were identified through electronic search of medical and psychological databases between 1980 and 2008. Seven studies were identified and included panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia and social phobia. Results show that evidencebased cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy are costeffective, usually more than usual care. Although the evidence base needs to be strengthened, it appears beneficial in increasing access to evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders from a societal perspective.
This study aims at better understanding the knowledge and beliefs of professional workers in school, health and social service settings in Quebec regarding ADHD. The authors examine the important discrepancies identified by Cohen (1999) between identified standard practices in treating ADHD patients and practices used in Quebec. This situation could be linked to insufficient knowledge of workers or certain of their beliefs that oppose these practices and their reluctance to implement them in their environment. Two measurement scales were utilised : the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Orientation Scale (ADHDOS, Couture, 2002) and the Survey of ADHD of Jerome and al. (1994). Results show among other things, that knowledge and beliefs vary according to professionals’background and training.
The Plan d’action en santé mentale 2005-2010 commands a substantial reform of mental health services organization. In order to achieve this, the Plan draws upon a set of ideas that appear somewhat unsubstantiated in regards to the sciences of organization. This article examines a few of these ideas. The managerial rhetoric of the Plan is anchored in an organizational and mechanistic archetype known for its inadequacy in the central mission of organizations of complex human services such as those concerning mental health. The mechanist rationality adopted marginalizes the real source of the value of mental health services, of practitioners and their social institutions. It participates in a movement that renders organizations always bigger, more abstract and impersonal steered from a distance by superficial indicators. There are good reasons to believe that this approach of organizational engineering will accentuate the eroding of the individual and collective capacities of delivering services of great value.
Violence between adolescents during teen pregnancy is relatively new in terms of scientific interest and clinical preoccupations. It is an alarming situation, given that 1) its prevalence ranges from 5 % to 29 % according to the literature; 2) consequences for both the mother’s and baby’s health are numerous at physical, psychological and sexual levels; 3) scientific and empirical knowledge regarding the phenomenon is limited and diminishes efficacy and relevance of current interventions. It therefore appears of major importance to acquire better knowledge of various ecological factors in order to implement preventative care and services that will allow them as well as their children to thrive in adverse conditions and have access to a safe and supportive environment.
Since the appearance of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in the 1980 version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the definition and the comprehension of this disorder have largely evolved. The present article is an overview of the principal aspects of GAD in the literature such as the history, the prevalence, the socioeconomic characteristics, the comorbidity, the differential diagnosis and its evolution, while considering the litigious questions concerning its classification. This article also presents a report of the recent studies about the cognitive profile of patients, from a perspective of cognitive experimental psychology and neuropsychology. The consequences on cognitive functioning are discussed in the second part of the article, as well as precautions relatively to functioning clinicians have to consider.